Easter

Easter

Traditionally, Easter commemorates the resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the New Testament, several texts make up the theology and significance of Easter. In the Gospels, Easter closely aligns with the passion narrative (Matthew 26-27, Mark 14-15, and Luke 22-23).

The text that opens Easter events describes Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:1-11). Among other things, The event marks the beginning of the final week leading up to Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection.

The entrance into Jerusalem is followed by the Last Supper (Matthew 26:17-30, Mark 14:12-26, Luke 22:7-39, and John 13:1-17:26) where Jesus inaugurates a new covenant between God and humanity (cf. Jeremiah 31:31-34, Ezekiel 36:26-27). This is done by a symbolic act of breaking bread and drinking wine with the disciples which should be later repeated in remembrance of his sacrifice "until he comes" again (1 Corinthians 11:23-26).

The Last Supper also refers to Passover, or Pesach, which is a significant event marking the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery. The term Passover derives from the Hebrew verb פָּסַח [pāsaḥ], which means "skip" or "spare," referring to how those who followed God's instructions were spared from the destruction that befell the Egyptians. The Israelites sacrificed a lamb and marked their doorposts with its blood, signifying their obedience to God.

After the Last Supper, Jesus and his disciples sang a hymn and departed for the Mount of Olives, where the events leading to Jesus' arrest and crucifixion begin to unfold. 

On Friday, the biblical narrative recounts the crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27:32-56, Mark 15:21-41, Luke 23:32-49, John 19:17–30). The passage describes Jesus being led to Golgotha, the place of crucifixion, where he is nailed to the cross. Despite the pain and humiliation, Jesus endures the crucifixion, ultimately actively - of his own volition - giving up his spirit and dying.

As was prophecized three times by Jesus (#1: Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 9:22; #2 Matthew 17:22-23, Mark 9:30-31, Luke 9:43-45; #3 Matthew 20:17-19, Mark 10:32-34, Luke 18:31-33) that this is not the end of the story. Jesus is miraculously resurrected (Matthew 28:1-10, Mark 16:1-8, Luke 24:1-12, John 20:1-18). The event of resurrection marks the vindication from the Father and the fulfillment of Jesus' promise to rise from the dead.

The whole story concludes with Jesus being taken up into heaven (Acts 1:6-11). Jesus promises the coming of the Holy Spirit and commissions his disciples to be his witnesses throughout the world. The passage concludes with the assurance that Jesus will one day return in the same way as he ascended into heaven. 

It was The First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD that established a standardized date for celebrating Easter, aiming to create uniformity among Christian communities. The council decided that Easter should be observed on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox.

Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed is a declaration of faith stated by the church fathers on the Council of Nicaea (325 AD). This is the first creed solving crucial doctrinal issues and church disunity. The content of the creed is following: Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων...

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Passover (Exodus 12:1-51)

The celebration of Passover or Pesach in Exodus 12 is one of the most important parts of the whole Bible. It commemorates the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery. In this text, the significant word form is the verb פָּסַח [pāsaḥ]. Its first occurrence is at Ex 12:13 (in the form of...

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Jesus Comes to Jerusalem as King (Matthew 21:1-11)

The text describes Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. In this passage, Jesus fulfills an Old Testament prophecy (Zechariah 9:9) by riding into the city on a donkey, accompanied by his disciples. A large crowd gathers to welcome him, laying their cloaks and palm branches on the road as a sign of...

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Last Supper (Matthew 26:17-30)

The Last Supper designates the final meal Jesus shares with his disciples before his crucifixion. The scene takes place during the Jewish festival of Passover, and Jesus gathers with his disciples to commemorate the event. The Last Supper is described in all four gospels (Matthew 26:17-30, Mark...

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Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Matthew 27:32-56)

Matthew 27:32-56 narrates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The passage describes Jesus being led to Golgotha, the place of crucifixion, where he is nailed to the cross alongside two criminals. The soldiers mock Jesus, and onlookers insult him, challenging him to save himself if he is truly the Son...

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Resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 28:1-10)

The passage describes the miraculous event of Jesus' resurrection. It highlights the emotions of fear, wonder, and joy experienced by the women who discover the empty tomb and encounter both an angel and Jesus himself. The text emphasizes the divine intervention in the form of an earthquake and the...

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Last Supper (Mark 14:12-26)

Markan version of the Last Supper recounts the events surrounding the event, where Jesus and his disciples look for a place to spend and share a Passover meal before his crucifixion. The first thing the text focus on during the Last Supper is that Jesus identifies his betrayer (Judas) in verse...

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Last Supper (Luke 22:7-38)

The Last Supper coincides with the celebration of the Passover, a Jewish festival commemorating God's deliverance of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. Jesus is often referred to as the "Lamb of God," symbolizing His role as a sacrifice for humanity's sins. By connecting Jesus to the Passover,...

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Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet (John 13:1-20)

The begining of thirteen chapter of the gospel of John speaks about paschal dinner. However John is not focusing on primary aspects of paschal dinner but concentrates our attention to feet washing, which is unexpected. This event is taking place in the perspective of Jesus' death (John 13:1.3).

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Ascension of Jesus (Acts 1:1-11)

Jesus' ascension into heaven signifies the end of his earthly ministry and the beginning of the apostles' mission. It also foreshadows Jesus' eventual return, as the angels declare that he will come back in the same way he ascended. Jesus instructs his disciples to be his witnesses in Jerusalem,...

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Institution of the Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 11:23-26)

This passage highlights the establishment of the Lord's Supper, also known as the Eucharist, as a fundamental Christian practice. It emphasizes the importance of remembering and proclaiming Jesus' sacrificial death on the cross. Jesus instructs his followers to partake in the bread and the cup...

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