Adultery and Betrothal Transgressions (Deuteronomy 22:22-29)

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The text presents a series of laws concerning sexual misconduct, focusing on adultery and transgressions related to betrothal. These verses emphasize the importance of maintaining moral and ethical standards within the community, especially regarding sexual relationships and marriage.

The passage begins by addressing the issue of adultery (Deuteronomy 22:22), prescribing the death penalty for both the man and woman involved. This law underscores the sacredness of marriage and the consequences of breaking its covenant. In verses Deuteronomy 22:23-24, the text addresses a situation where a betrothed woman is found to have engaged in sexual relations with another man in a city. Both individuals are to be stoned to death, as the woman did not cry for help and the man has violated another man's betrothed wife.

Verses Deuteronomy 22:25-27 outline a different scenario, where a man forces a betrothed woman to have sexual relations with him in a field. In this case, only the man is to be put to death, as the woman is considered innocent, having cried for help with no one to rescue her.

Lastly, verses Deuteronomy 22:28-29 deal with a case where a man has sexual relations with an unbetrothed virgin. In this situation, the man is required to pay a fine to the woman's father, and he must marry her without the possibility of divorce, as he has violated her.

The theological message of Deuteronomy 22:22-29 highlights the importance of upholding sexual purity, honoring marriage, and protecting the vulnerable within society. These laws seek to preserve the sanctity of relationships and promote justice, serving as guiding principles for the Israelites as they build a strong, morally upright community. The passage's significance lies in its emphasis on the value of maintaining ethical standards in relationships, which ultimately contributes to a stable, harmonious society.


Word Meaning
כִּי porque, cuando
מצא encontrar
אִישׁ hombre
שׁכב acostarse
עַם pueblo; pariente; parentesco
אִשָּׁה mujer; cada mujer
בעל casarse; poseer, gobernar sobre
בַּעַל marido; señor, dueño; el Baal
וְ y
מות morir

Biblical text

22:22כִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ שֹׁכֵ֣ב ׀ עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה בְעֻֽלַת־בַּ֗עַל וּמֵ֙תוּ֙ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם הָאִ֛ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִם־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וְהָאִשָּׁ֑ה וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס
23כִּ֤י יִהְיֶה֙ נער בְתוּלָ֔ה מְאֹרָשָׂ֖ה לְאִ֑ישׁ וּמְצָאָ֥הּ אִ֛ישׁ בָּעִ֖יר וְשָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּֽהּ׃24וְהוֹצֵאתֶ֨ם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר ׀ הָעִ֣יר הַהִ֗וא וּסְקַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֥ם בָּאֲבָנִים֮ וָמֵתוּ֒ אֶת־הנער עַל־דְּבַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־צָעֲקָ֣ה בָעִ֔יר וְאֶ֨ת־הָאִ֔ישׁ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ ס
25וְֽאִם־בַּשָּׂדֶ֞ה יִמְצָ֣א הָאִ֗ישׁ אֶת־הנער הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְהֶחֱזִֽיק־בָּ֥הּ הָאִ֖ישׁ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וּמֵ֗ת הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּ֖הּ לְבַדּֽוֹ׃26ולנער לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה דָבָ֔ר אֵ֥ין לנער חֵ֣טְא מָ֑וֶת כִּ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ יָק֨וּם אִ֤ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ וּרְצָח֣וֹ נֶ֔פֶשׁ כֵּ֖ן הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃27כִּ֥י בַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מְצָאָ֑הּ צָעֲקָ֗ה הנער הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִׁ֖יעַ לָֽהּ׃ ס
28כִּֽי־יִמְצָ֣א אִ֗ישׁ נער בְתוּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־אֹרָ֔שָׂה וּתְפָשָׂ֖הּ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וְנִמְצָֽאוּ׃29וְ֠נָתַן הָאִ֨ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִמָּ֛הּ לַאֲבִ֥י הנער חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלֽוֹ־תִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֗ה תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִנָּ֔הּ לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל שַׁלְּחָ֖ה כָּל־יָמָֽיו׃ ס