Biblical Greek (Beginners): 06. Future, prepositions

Future Tense

Future tense won't be anything new for us. The endings are the same as in present tense. In order to form future tense, discerning letter σ has to be inserted in between verbal root and personal ending.

  Sg Pl   Sg Pl
Indicative Active   Middle
1 λυ σω λυ σομεν   λυ σομαι λυ σομεθα
2 λυ σεις λυ σετε   λυ σ λυ σεσθε
3 λυ σει λυ σουσιν   λυ σεται λυ σονται

Passive Voice

Future passive voice has exactly the same endings as middle voice. However discerning letter σ is extended to θησ. The future passive voice is not that frequent phenomenon in Greek New Testament (almost 300 occurrences).

Stem Ending on a Plosive Consonant

As was letter σ appearing in endings of the III. declension, so it appearσ in future, however in this case as a discerning consonant in between verbal root and personal ending. When verbal root ends with plosive consonant, same rules will apply when connecting with letter σ.

  • Labials plus σ forms to ps π, β, φ + σ = ψ
  • Dentals plus σ forms to sigma τ, δ, θ + σ = σ
  • Velars plus σ forms to ks κ, γ, χ + σ = ξ


2 Thess 3:3 Πιστὸς δέ ἐστιν ὁ κύριος, ὃς στηρίξει ὑμᾶς καὶ φυλάξει ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ
  Faithful is the Lord, whom will strengthen you and keep you from the evil One
Acts 13:10 οὐ παύσ διαστρέφων τὰς ὁδοὺς [τοῦ] κυρίου τὰς εὐθείας
  You will not stop deforming straight ways of the Lord
Rom 5:9 ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ σωθησόμεθα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς
  In his blood, we will be saved from the wrath because of him


Each preposition in Greek is linked with some particular case (as it is in German). A preposition can have links to multiple cases having for each case specific meaning. Information about case links can be found in dictionaries.

We present a list of fifteen prepositions below, which occurred at least one hundred times in the text of New Testament:

ἐν διά ὑπό
εἰς ἀπό παρά
ἐκ, ἐξ κατά ὑπέρ
ἐπί μετά σύν
πρός περί ἐνώπιον

You can gradually learn these prepositions in the assignments section.