Biblical Greek (Beginners): 03. First declension (model προφητης), adjectives

In this lesson, we will look on the masculine model προφητης which has feminine endings and adjectives.

Model προφητης

The word προφητης is a model of masculine gender, which means that article form is always masculine in gender, while the endings reflect feminine gender.

Case Article Model
N sg. προφητης νεανίας
G του προφητου νεανίου
D τῳ προφητ νεανί
A τον προφητην νεανίαν
V προφητα! νεανία!
N pl. οἱ προφηται νεανίαι
G των προφητων νεανίων
D τοις προφηταις νεανίαις
A τους προφητας νεανίας
V V = N V = N

Basically, nothing new happened here. However, notice that:

  • Singular: the endings are ης, ου, , ην, α! (the same as in masculine gender with the exception that ο is η here)
    • N and G: ης, ου – specific for this declension pattern
    • D and A: , ην – as in ψυχη
    • V: α – as in ἡμερα
  • Plural: the article is always masculine, the endings are feminine (α-stems)
  • νεανίας: the ειρ rule is also effective here (if the root ends with one of these letters, α will be enforced instead of η)

Notice that D sg. of all declension groups has always iota subscript. Also, notice that G pl. has through all declension groups ων ending (which is the same for all declension patterns in all Greek).


Adjectives are inflected in the same way as the nouns are, with the difference that for every gender there is a distinct ending based on gender's declension. For example the word ἀγαθός (good) might have these forms: 

  • masculine: ἀγαθός
  • neuter: ἀγαθόν 
  • feminine: ἀγαθή 

Adjective stands in concord with the substantive it develops, it agrees with it in case, gender and number.

There are two types of the adjectives having:

  • three genders: m., f., n. – endings for all genders
  • two genders: m/f., n. – same ending for both m. and f. (i.e., only two sets of endings)

The adjectives could be used in these ways:

  • Attributive – always with the article
    • ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος "good man"
    • ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθός "good man"
    • ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθός "good man"
  • Predicative – always without the article 
    • ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος "that man is good"
    • ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθός "that man is good"
  • Substantival – no substantive modified, is just stands alone by it self
    • ὁ ἀγαθος "the good one, the one who is good"
    • ὁ πονηρος "the bad one, the one who is bad"