Biblical Greek (Beginners): 08. Aorist I. a II. (active, middle, passive)
Aorist1 is perfective tense2, indicating simple, finished action in the past if we would like to define it in a simple manner. Aorist can express also another specific relation to time, depending on the given context (dealt in more advanced grammar).
First Aorist (weak)
The first aorist includes verbs that have regular root.
|Sg||1||ἐ λυ σα||I loosed3||ἐ λυ σάμην||I loosed myself/for myself||ἐ λυ θην||I was loosed|
|2||ἐ λυ σας||ἐ λύ σω||ἐ λυ θης|
|3||ἐ λυ σε(ν)||ἐ λύ σατο||ἐ λυ θη|
|Pl||1||ἐ λύ σαμεν||ἐ λυ σάμεθα||ἐ λυ θημεν|
|2||ἐ λύ σατε||ἐ λύ σασθε||ἐ λυ θητε|
|3||ἐ λυ σαν||ἐ λύ σαντο||ἐ λυ θησαν|
|Infinitive||λυ σαι||to loose4||λυ σασθαι||to loose myself/for myself||λυ θηναι||to be loosed|
|Imperative||λυ σον!||loose!5||λυ σαι!||loose yoursel/for yourself!||λυ θητι||be loosed!|
|λυ σατε!||λυ σασθε!||λυ θητε|
- ἐ: augment is present only in the indicative (not in imperative or infinitive)
- ον: ending of active imperative sg is same as in imperfect 1sg a 3pl (discerning only on the account of letter sigma)
- αι: active infinitive and middle imperative sg has same endings
- second aorist passive imperative sg has ending ηθι instead of ητι
|Rom 5:14||ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως|
|death reigned from Adam until Moses.|
|John 1:32||καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης|
|and John witnessed|
|Eph 4:30||ἐν ᾧ ἐσφραγίσθητε εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως|
|in him you are sealed to the day of redemption|
Second Aorist (strong)
We were used to conjugate verbs based upon word root of present tense. In fact, there is something like an original root in Greek, which is not always corresponding to the form of the verb in the present. This fact is causing irregularities. Irregular forms of these verbs are needed to be learned. We will encounter irregularities in aorist (for the most part), perfect and future tenses. Irregular forms of these tenses could be found in dictionaries (see for example word λεγω).
Strong aorist is composed of a combination of irregular verb root and imperfect ending.
- augment + irregular root + endings of imperfect.
- Infinitive and imperative:
- without augment + irregular root + endings of present for infinitive and imperative
- does not have letter θ
- same endings as in first aorist
Irregular verbs table
Below you will find the most common forms of the second aorist, which you need to know by heart.
You can learn them in the exercise in the assignments section.
|Rev 1:19||γράψον οὖν ἃ εἶδες καὶ ἃ εἰσὶν καὶ ἃ μέλλει γενέσθαι μετὰ ταῦτα.|
|therefore write things you saw and things that are and are about to become after.|
1 The word aorist means „unlimited“ or „undefined“, in order to express that action of the aorist does not have any corresponding relationship to time or its lengh.
2 Verb λυω would be thus transladed "loosed" not "was loosing".
3 Comp. with imperfect : I was loosing (imperfectness)
4 Comp. with present: to loose (imperfectness)
5 Comp. with present: loose! (imperfectness)
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